While I've never actually got round to doing this, I understand that Node-RED uses Passport which is a popular extension to ExpressJS which Node-RED uses to provide its web interfaces.
As such, there are plugins for Passport that provide both Azure Active Directory - which I think is what you want when you talk about "ADFS" since that is what connects an on-premise AD to AAD in the cloud. And also for Kerberos.
Of course, Kerberos is only suitable for LAN-based authentication and shouldn't generally be used over the Internet. It is the product of a bygone age.
To make use of AAD based logins, you will need to have access to your Azure configuration - or perhaps more likely - access to someone who is an administrator. It will require configuration in Azure.
If you really want to be a masochist, you could also use a SAML approach (again, against AAD). This is more robust but rather harder and more involved to configure.